Menstruation Explained: What Happens, Symptoms, and More


The first phase of the menstrual cycle is menstruation or period. This is the bleeding stage that we are all familiar with.

There are four phases in the menstrual cycle:

Menstruation and menstrual cycle are not the same concept. Menstruation is the bleeding itself while the menstruation cycle comprises all four stages. All phases play important roles in maintaining your reproductive health.

The new period and the new cycle begin on the same day. Its duration can vary from person to person, from 2-7 days with 5 being the average length.

Duration: 2-7 days

Average: 5 days


  • Estrogen ↓
  • Progesterone ↓


Period symptoms usually show up 4-7 days before the period begins. These symptoms are great indicators of the approaching period.

  • Bloating
  • Cramps
  • Mood swings
  • Acne
  • Sensitive breasts
  • Sluggishness
  • Backache & more

What Happens during Menstruation?

If the egg from the last cycle is not fertilized, there will be no pregnancy. When this happens, the thick lining of the uterus has no need to exist. There is a drop in estrogen and progesterone from the previous luteal phase.

Therefore, the lining starts to shed and it comes out of the vagina. This is what we call ‘period’.

The period blood consists of blood, tissues of the uterus lining, and mucus. During this time, it’s common to use sanitary products, such as pads, tampons, menstrual cups, and more, [link of pads, tampons or menstrual cup] to take in the shedding blood.

A person bleeds 60 ml or four tablespoons on average during their period. You can also bleed 30-40 ml during a lighter period but if it exceeds 80 ml, that’s a matter of concern.

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